Novel Coronavirus: The Last of Viral Attacks

Facebooktwitterlinkedinrssyoutubevimeoinstagramby feather

It was not long ago that the human world was attacked by MERS, Ebola, Zika and Noroviruses and just few years ago with the mass killings of SARS. The new year of 2020 just before starting has brought another killing viral attack with it in China in last December, soon spread all across the globe. The new virus that is similar to MERS and SARS is a type of Coronavirus, that is a group of virus causing from common cold to the new killer, novel coronavirus and since it started in 2019 as 2019-nCoV or Wuhan Coronavirus since it started from the Wuhan province in China. Most of these viruses are zoonotic, meaning spread from animals to humans and passed on between humans easily air-borne. Most of the recent case in Wuhan province arose from the famous Huanan Seafood Market from infected live animal meats.

 This frightening scenario has stricken the whole globe more than any ongoing man-made wars, costing numerous lives and downfall of the financial and stock markets worldwide that are heavily dependent on China. More haunting than the current mass murdering scene of this new virus is the alarming sign of how viruses like their other microbial counterparts continue in their evolutions and arsenals, more advanced and fatal than any human’s best weaponry. The new coronavirus is the seventh in the line of such type of virus after 229E (one of the causes of common cold), NL63 causing bronchitis and respiratory infection discovered in 2004, OC43 causing pneumonia in immune vulnerable individuals such as infants and elderly discovered in 2004, HKU1 causing acute respiratory infection discovered in 2005, MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related Corona Virus) discovered in 2012, and SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Corona Virus) discovered in 2003.

 Another fascinating power of this novel Coronavirus is its capability to create several gnomes so to survive and endure its invasion. From January 12 to January 26, 2020 in only two weeks the virus has more than doubled its genomes from 12 to 28. More frightening about the novel Coronavirus is that it is only a single stranded RNA (not even double stranded or with no DNA as most beings) that in addition to its progressive genomes, acts like a messenger RNA and uses the host cells and organelles for further replication and survival. Novel Coronavirus like SARS uses ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) that has direct effect on cardiac function, as an entry point into human cells.

As we speak a number of countries other than China are hardly working on producing vaccines against the novel Coronavirus by mimicking the virus own protease. But by the time any of these vaccines being first tested on animal models before their clinical applications on infected patients, the novel Coronavirus will boast with its daily increased mass massacre. Microbial invasion such as the novel Coronavirus is like a Trojan Horse and while after the acute attack and relief of the world, since they have already resided in the host bodies, waiting for their next insidious attacks and damage to the body organs, causing malignancies and autoimmune disorders among many other chronic and hardly treatable human diseases.

References:

  1. Dandekar, A; Perlman, S (2005). “Immunopathogenesis of coronavirus infections: implications for SARS”. Nat Rev Immunol 5 (12): 917–927.

2.Coronavirus never before seen in humans is the cause of SARS. United Nations World Health Organization. 16 April 2006.

  1. Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai AC, Zhou J, Liu W, Bi Y, Gao GF. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.Trends Microbiol. 2016 Mar 21. pii: S0966-842X(16)00071-8.
  2. Zumla, A; Hui, DS; Perlman, S (3 June 2015). “Middle East respiratory syndrome.”. Lancet (London, England) 386: 995–1007.
  3. Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, Cheng VC, Woo PC, Yuen KY (Apr 2015). “Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease”. Clin Microbiol Rev 28 (2): 465–522.
  4. Reid CR, Airo AM, Hobman TC. The Virus-Host Interplay: Biogenesis of +RNA Replication Complexes.Viruses. 2015 Aug 6;7(8):4385-413.
  5. Gibbs E. P. 2005. Emerging zoonotic epidemics in the interconnected global community. Veterinary Record 157:673–679.
  6. Tomley F. M., and Shirley M. W. 2009. Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London BBiological Sciences 364:2637–2642.
  7. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2001). “Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife”. Acta tropica 78 (2): 103–116.
  8. Webster JP, Gower CM, Knowles SC, Molyneux DH, Fenton A. One health – an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases.

Evol Appl. 2016 Jan 8;9(2):313-33.

  1. Cleaveland S. C., Laurenson M. K., and Taylor L. H. 2001. Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London BBiological Sciences 356:991–999.
  2. Benvenuto et al. (2020). The 2019 new Coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution. bioRxiv.2020.01.24.915157.

13.Hui DS, et al. (2020). The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 14;91:264-266.

  1. Paules, et al. (2020). Coronavirus infections: More than just the common cold. JAMA.

 

 

Facebooktwitterlinkedinrssyoutubevimeoinstagramby feather